TIMELINE TO DATE
The birthplace of the Jewish people is the Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael). There, a significant part of the nation’s long history was enacted, of which the first thousand years are recorded in the Bible; there, its cultural, religious, and national identity was formed; and there, its physical presence has been maintained through the centuries, even after the majority was forced into exile. During the many years of dispersion, the Jewish people never severed nor forgot its bond with the Land. With the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Jewish independence, lost 2,000 years earlier, was renewed.
Archeology in Israel involves the systematic investigation of all the remains of the country’s past – from prehistory to the end of Ottoman rule. The profusion of material remains is evidence of the many cultures that have left their imprint on the Land.
Above all archeological research clearly reveals the historical link between the Jewish people, the Bible and the Land of Israel, uncovering the remains of the cultural heritage of the Jewish people in its homeland. These visible remains, buried in the soil, constitute the physical link between the past, the present and the future of the Jewish people in its country.
This unbroken chain of history can be observed at sites all over the country. Jerusalem, the capital of Israel, has been the focus of extensive archeological activity and remains of 5,000 years of history have been revealed.
|17th-6th C. BCE||BIBLICAL TIMES
|(BCE – Before the Common Era)
|Abraham, Isaac, Jacob – patriarchs of the Jewish people and bearers of a belief in one God – settle in the Land of Israel.
Famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt.
|c.13th century||Exodus from Egypt: Moses leads Israelites from Egypt, followed by 40 years of wandering in the desert.
Torah, including the Ten Commandments, received at Mount Sinai.
|Israelites settle in the Land of Israel|
|c.1020||Jewish monarchy established; Saul, first king.|
|c.1000||Jerusalem made capital of David’s kingdom.|
|c.960||First Temple, the national and spiritual center of the Jewish people, built in Jerusalem by King Solomon.|
|c. 930||Divided kingdom: Judah and Israel|
|722-720||Israel crushed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes).|
|586||Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem and First Temple destroyed; most Jews exiled.|
THE SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD
|538-142||Persian and Hellenistic periods|
|538-515||Many Jews return from Babylonia; Temple rebuilt.|
|332||Land conquered by Alexander the Great; Hellenistic rule.|
||Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple|
|142-129||Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.|
|129-63||Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy.|
|63||Jerusalem captured by Roman general, Pompey.|
||Herod, Roman vassal king, rules the Land of Israel;
Temple in Jerusalem refurbished
(CE – The Common Era)
|c. 20-33||Ministry of Jesus of Nazareth|
|66||Jewish revolt against the Romans|
|70||Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple.|
|73||Last stand of Jews at Masada.|
|132-135||Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome.|
|c. 210||Codification of Jewish oral law (Mishna) completed.|
|c. 390||Commentary on the Mishna (Jerusalem Talmud) completed.|
|691||On site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik.|
(Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem)
|1564||Code of Jewish law (Shulhan Arukh) published.|
|1860||First neighborhood built outside walls of Jerusalem’s Old City.|
|1882-1903||First Aliya (large-scale immigration), mainly from Russia.|
||First Zionist Congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basel, Switzerland; Zionist Organization founded.|
|1904-14||Second Aliya, mainly from Russia and Poland.|
|1909||First kibbutz, Degania, and first modern all-Jewish city, Tel Aviv, founded.|
|1917||400 years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest;
British Foreign Minister Balfour pledges support for establishment of a “Jewish national home in Palestine”
|1919-23||Third Aliya, mainly from Russia|
|1920||Histadrut (General Federation of Labor) and Haganah (Jewish defense organization) founded.
Vaad Leumi (National Council) set up by Jewish community (Yishuv) to conduct its affairs.
|1921||First moshav (cooperative village), Nahalal, founded.|
|1922||Britain granted Mandate for Palestine (Land of Israel) by League of Nations; Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the area, leaving one fourth for the Jewish national home.
Jewish Agency representing Jewish community vis-a-vis Mandate authorities set up.
||Technion, first institute of technology, founded in Haifa.|
|1924-32||Fourth Aliya, mainly from Poland.|
|1925||Hebrew University of Jerusalem opened on Mount Scopus.|
|1929||Hebron Jews massacred by Arab terrorists.|
|1931||Etzel, Jewish underground organization, founded.|
|1933-39||Fifth Aliya, mainly from Germany.|
|1936-39||Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab terrorists.|
|1939||Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper.|
|1939-45||World War II; Holocaust in Europe.|
|1941||Lehi underground movement formed; Palmach, strike force of Haganah, set up.|
|1944||Jewish Brigade formed as part of British forces.|
|1947||UN proposes the establishment of Arab and Jewish states in the Land.|
|STATE OF ISRAEL|
||End of British Mandate (14 May)
State of Israel proclaimed (14 May).
Israel invaded by five Arab states (15 May).
Israel Defense Forces (IDF) established.
War of Independence (May 1948-July 1949).
|1949||Armistice agreements signed with Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon.
Jerusalem divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule.
First Knesset (parliament) elected.
Israel admitted to United Nations as 59th member.
||Mass immigration from Europe and Arab countries.|
|1962||Adolf Eichmann tried and executed in Israel for his part in the Holocaust.|
||National Water Carrier completed, bringing water from Lake Kinneret in the north to the semi-arid south.|
||Six-Day War; Jerusalem reunited.|
|1968-70||Egypt’s War of Attrition against Israel|
|1973||Yom Kippur War|
|1975||Israel becomes an associate member of the European Common Market.|
|1977||Likud forms government after Knesset elections, end of 30 years of Labor rule.
Visit of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat to Jerusalem.
|1978||Camp David Accords include framework for comprehensive peace in the Middle East and proposal for Palestinian self-government.|
|1979||Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty signed.
Prime Minister Menachem Begin and President Anwar Sadat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
|1981||Israel Air Force destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor just before it is to become operative.|
|1982||Israel’s three-stage withdrawal from Sinai Peninsula completed.
Operation Peace for Galilee removes Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) terrorists from Lebanon.
|1984||National unity government (Likud and Labor) formed after elections.
Operation Moses, immigration of Jews from Ethiopia.
|1985||Free Trade Agreement signed with United States.|
|1987||Widespread violence (Intifada) starts in Israeli-administered areas.|
|1988||Likud government wins elections.|
||Four-point peace initiative proposed by Israel.
Start of mass immigration of Jews from former Soviet Union.
|1991||Israel attacked by Iraqi Scud missiles during Gulf war.
Middle East peace conference convened in Madrid;
Operation Solomon, airlift of Jews from Ethiopia.
|1992||Diplomatic relations established with China and India.
New government headed by Yitzhak Rabin of Labor Party.
|1993||Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements for the Palestinians signed by Israel and PLO, as representative of the Palestinian people (Oslo Accords).|
||Implementation of Palestinian self-government in Gaza Strip and Jericho area.
Full diplomatic relations with the Holy See.
Morocco and Tunisia interest offices set up.
Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty signed.
Rabin, Peres, Arafat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
|1995||Broadened Palestinian self-government implemented in West Bank and Gaza Strip; Palestinian Council elected.
Prime Minister Rabin assassinated at peace rally.
Shimon Peres becomes prime minister.
|1996||Fundamentalist Arab terrorism against Israel escalates.
Operation Grapes of Wrath, retaliation for Hizbullah terrorists’ attacks on northern Israel.
Trade representation offices set up in Oman and Qatar.
Likud forms government after Knesset elections.
Binyamin Netanyahu elected prime minister.
Omani trade representation office opened in Tel Aviv.
|1997||Hebron Protocol signed by Israel and the PA.|
||Israel celebrates its 50th anniversary.
Israel and the PLO sign the Wye River Memorandum to facilitate implementation of the Interim Agreement.
|1999||Ehud Barak (left-wing One Israel party) elected prime minister; forms coalition government.
Israel and the PLO sign the Sharm-el-Sheikh Memorandum.
|2000||Visit of Pope Paul II.
Israel withdraws from the Security Zone in southern Lebanon.
Israel admitted to UN Western European and Others Group.
Renewed violence (Second Intifada). Prime Minister Barak resigns.
|2001||Ariel Sharon (Likud) elected Prime Minister; forms broad-based unity government.
The Sharm-el-Sheikh Fact-Finding Committee report (Mitchell Report) issued.
Palestinian-Israeli Security Implementation Work Plan (Tenet ceasefire plan) proposed.
Rechavam Ze’evy, Minister of Tourism, assassinated by Palestinian terrorists.
|2002||Israel launches Operation Defensive Shield in response to massive Palestinian terrorist attacks.
Israel begins building the anti-terrorist fence to stop West Bank terrorists from killing Israeli citizens.
Prime Minister Sharon disperses the Knesset, calling for new elections to be held on 28 January 2003.
|2003||Right-of-center coalition government formed by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon.
Israel accepts the Roadmap.
|2005||Israel carries out the Disengagement Plan, ending Israel’s presence in the Gaza Strip.|
|2006||After Prime Minister Sharon suffers a stroke, Ehud Olmert becomes acting prime minister.
Following elections on 28 March, Prime Minister Ehud Olmert forms new government led by the Kadima Party.
Israel carried out military operations against Palestinian terrorists in Gaza after kidnapping of Israeli soldier.
The Second War in Lebanon, during which Israel carried out military operations against Hizbullah terrorism from southern Lebanon, following missile attacks and kidnapping of two Israeli soldiers.
|2007||Shimon Peres elected President by the Knesset.
Israel declares Gaza “hostile territory” following Hamas violent takeover of Gaza Strip.
|2008||Israel celebrates its 60th anniversary.
Israel launches its Gaza Operation (Operation Cast Lead) in response to the barrage of over 10,000 rockets and mortars fired from the Gaza Strip.
|2009||Benjamin Netanyahu is elected Prime Minister in national elections held in February 2009, and forms a broad-based coalition government
The city of Tel Aviv celebrates its 100th anniversary.
|2010||Israel joins the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).|
Information courtesy of State of Israel Government